Many legal uncertainties are being solved by the UN Convention on contracts for the International Sale of Goods. Nearly 80 countries have now signed this convention, including the Federal Republic of Germany, China, France, Italy, USA, Austria, Scandinavian countries, some Eastern European countries and Russia. The CISG creates a uniform commercial regulation for cross-border sales contracts; this may differ from the national commercial regulation. For instance, the German commercial law regulates guarantee and deadlines differently from the CISG.
Incoterms (International Commercial Terms / Internationale Handelsklauseln)
The Incoterms are a set of independent regulations used for the interpretation of commercial contractual formulas in the international trade of goods. Incoterms are developed by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). The most actual version is the Incoterms 2010 (7th revision) and has been valid since the 1th of January 2011. The Incoterms are intended primarily to regulate common delivery matters. The regulations determine which transport costs shall bear the buyer and which the seller, or which party is going to pay in case of damage of goods (transfer of risk) etc. Also terms of payment and jurisdiction are not regulated by them. The incoterms will only be considered legally valid if they have been consequently been agreed by the buyer and seller.